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Judging the Environment judicial nominations photo

A project tracking federal judicial nominations and courts.

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80 PA Editorial Board opinions from 20 newspapers

Another View -- Elizabeth Wydra: The promise and progress of the U.S. Constitution (New Hampshire Union Leader, 09/23/16)
"The promise of justice, for example, is threatened by the unprecedented breach by Senate Republicans of their constitutional responsibilities regarding judicial nominations. Since Republicans took control of the Senate in 2015, they have confirmed just 22 judicial nominees — a record low since the 1950s when the judiciary was half its current size. That leaves 90 vacancies on federal courts around the nation, 35 representing judicial emergencies, meaning they are vastly overburdened. These vacancies don’t just affect the nominees. They affect everyone. The speedy trial rights of criminal defendants are threatened. Civil cases are delayed. And citizens are denied timely justice on a range of issues including civil rights, clean air and water, corporate responsibility and reproductive rights. Perhaps the most well known of those vacant seats is the one on the Supreme Court, rendering the Court unable to reach decisions in tied cases."

Scott Crass: "There is a Judicial crisis in America and Mitch McConnell doesn’t care. Senators are not doing their jobs or fulfilling their Constitutional responsibilities and Senate leaders cite statistics that totally ignore the severity of the crisis.... in the nearly 21 months since Republicans have taken control of the Senate. They have confirmed 22 nominees, essentially one for each month. Conversely, 68 of President George W. Bush’s nominees were confirmed during the same period and that was when the opposite party controlled the Senate. Worse, Republicans have sought to obfuscate that with disingenuous talking points and technicalities .... Another judge from Tennessee has been on the docket for nearly a year. ... Judges are being slow walked for no apparent reason."

Tom Cotton saying no (again)  (Arkansas Times, 09/22/16)
"Just say no: Republican U.S. Sen. Tom Cotton is keeping up his one-man blockade of five judges to fill vacant seats on the Court of Federal Claims, the venue for citizens to file claims against the U.S. government for matters such as tax disputes and government contracts. The nominees have been held up for two years, despite the fact that the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee has twice approved them unanimously. The chief judge of the claims court has said it badly needs the vacancies filled. But Cotton, who again last week blocked a vote on the confirmation, is interested in obstruction for obstruction's sake. At the moment, the court contains eight Republican appointees and three Democrats, and adding President Obama's five nominees would even the balance. Cotton insists the court's caseload doesn't warrant filling the vacancies."

Comment | Promise of regular order in Senate (Courier-Journal [KY] , 09/22/16)
Prof. Carl Tobias: "It is past time for the GOP-led chamber to fulfill its constitutional duty for advising and consenting on President Barack Obama’s judicial nominees. Once Republicans captured a Senate majority, the leaders promised they would implement regular order ... Notwithstanding President Obama’s aggressive consultation with all home-state senators to pursue suggestions of well-qualified, consensus nominees, many Republicans have not collaborated to recommend names. The Judiciary Committee has also conducted hearings for rather few nominees ... McConnell has dramatically stalled the pace of final debates, if warranted, and chamber ballots. Indeed, the Senate has confirmed merely 20 circuit and district nominees, averaging one a month since Republicans became the majority. This markedly contrasts to the 68 judges whom the Democratic chamber majority helped approve in President George W. Bush’s final two years. The number of vacancies has more than doubled from 40 to 89, while the number of emergencies has soared from 12 to as high as 35, the current number. There are presently three circuit nominees and 19 district nominees waiting for yes or no votes. The Judiciary Committee reported all of the district nominees with no dissent, and Republican home-state senators recommended 11 of the 19 nominees. Delayed confirmations have many deleterious effects. ... Before Obama’s presidency, the custom was to approve every qualified, moderate nominee on the floor before recesses like the one that begins in early October. The closest comparison to the present situation is September 2008 when the Democratic Senate Majority conducted hearings on and confirmed 10 Bush district nominees in that month. The GOP leaders can start rectifying the vacancy crisis and restoring regular order by according all nominees on the floor votes before leaving to campaign."

Mitch McConnell Just Tried Skipping Over Cory Booker’s Judicial Nominee Again: Instead of trying to compromise, the Majority Leader’s proposed votes are becoming more partisan. (Medium, 09/21/16)
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights: "Sen. Cory Booker, D. N.J., spoke on the Senate floor on Tuesday about ... obstruction at all levels of the federal judiciary, including district and circuit court nominees pending on the Senate floor.... On September 7, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R. Ky., tried skipping over his nominee to the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey (Julien Neals), in addition to a Tennessee nominee (Edward Stanton III) by offering a “bipartisan package” of four nominees equally from Republican and Democratic states. Neals and Stanton have been waiting longest for a vote on the floor. And they happen to both be African American. Booker rightly pointed out the obvious: The perception of skipping over those two nominees in particular should be problematic for everyone. On Tuesday, Booker tried getting votes on the next seven nominees in line — including Neals and Stanton — but McConnell said no. McConnell cited figures comparing the number of judges President Obama and President George W. Bush have had confirmed — a meaningless comparison given the number of vacancies they faced — and offered a different package of nominees. Unlike his bipartisan package two weeks before, these four nominees were more partisan — and skipped over Booker’s nominee, whose vacancy is now an emergency.... Every district court nominee currently pending on the Senate floor was voice-voted out of the Senate Judiciary Committee, and every nominee on the floor — ones recommended by both Democrats and Republicans — have the support of their home-state senators (including 16 Republicans)."

Sen. Cory Booker calls out Republicans for blocking Black judicial nominees (Shareblue, 09/20/16)
Tommy Christopher: "Sen. Cory Booker took to the floor to fight for the nominations of Judge Julien Neals to the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, and of Judge Edward L. Stanton III to the United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee, both of whom were nominated well over a year ago, and both of whom were long ago approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee. [Booker said] 'There’s no credible reason why we’re not moving forward, besides partisanship. I just can’t see it. So I would like to rise again and make this request for unanimous consent that the Senate proceed to executive session to consider the following nominations. Regular order would mean that we would go to these two judges who happen to be qualified African-Americans. Regular order would bring us to these long-standing men who have been sitting on the sidelines now for well over a year.' Republican Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, of course, blocked Senator Booker’s motion, ... Booker... made this plea two weeks ago, and was sure to point out that the race of these two judges just had to be a coincidence.... Republican obstruction of President Obama’s nominees, including Judge Merrick Garland’s nomination to the Supreme Court, has been unprecedented. And Sen. Booker is justifiably calling it out."

On Confirming Judges, Senate Just Says No (Jost on Justice: Law & Justice Blog, 09/18/16)
Kenneth Jost: The Senate’s Republican leadership is now in its seventh month of refusing to convene a hearing on Obama’s nomination of the veteran federal appeals court judge Merrick Garland to the current vacancy on the Supreme Court. But the GOP’s refusal to consider Obama’s judicial nominees goes much further than that. Even as unfilled judicial vacancies have more than doubled over the past two years, Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell has now all but shut down consideration of any of Obama’s judicial nominees. The 90 vacancies include 34 that are characterized as “judicial emergencies” based on caseload figures. The policy extends to noncontroversial judicial nominees for U.S. district courts even when supported by home-state Republican senators, according to Glenn Sugameli, who has been tracking federal court nominations since 2001 on a website now called Sugameli, who now works as a staff attorney for Defenders of Wildlife, calls the obstruction “unprecedented, unjustifiable, and harmful to businesses and individuals for whom justice delayed is justice denied.”... Sheldon Goldman, a political scientist at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and a longtime expert on judicial nominations and confirmations, agrees that the broader inaction on Obama nominees has no historical precedent. The record of the current Senate over the past two years is “the worst in American history in terms of obstruction and delay.” ... McConnell defends the Senate’s current record by noting that the Senate has confirmed a few more Obama judges, 329 in all, than it did for Bush in his eight years: 326. Sugameli says the comparison is misleading because of the larger number of vacancies in the Obama years.

Judicial Nominee Backlog Still Mired in Partisan Politics (NBC News, 09/18/16)
LUKE RUSSERT and MIKE BRUNKER: There are currently 96 federal judicial vacancies and 58 nominees pending, according to the U.S. Federal Courts.... Already, the Federal Bar Association, the professional organization for private and government lawyers and judges practicing and sitting in federal courts, has stated that "high numbers of vacancies on the federal bench, coupled with increasing caseloads, are creating significant and unprecedented obstacles for the prompt administration of justice in our federal courts."... Sen. Patrick ... Leahy's staff has noted that when he was the Judiciary chairman during the last two years of George W. Bush's presidency, 68 judicial nominees were confirmed by the Senate.

Tensions rise over judicial nominees (The Hill, 09/18/16)
Lydia Wheeler: More than four dozen judicial nominees are in limbo as President Obama’s term draws to a close. Senate Democrats are blasting their Republican colleagues for not only blocking the confirmation of Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland, but also 53 other judges in the lower courts, calling their obstruction “unprecedented” and “irresponsible.” “These are supposed to be nonpolitical positions,” Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), ranking member of the Senate Judiciary, said. “I’ve been here longer than anybody else, I’ve never seen anything so irresponsible.” In the last two years of the George W. Bush presidency, Leahy said, the Democratic majority confirmed 68 of his judges. In Obama’s last two years, the Republican majority has confirmed 22 judges. “We put through 10 of them in September just before we recessed for the election,” Leahy said. “They’re not willing to follow the Constitution, they won’t do their job.” The Alliance for Justice (AFJ) said Congress is on track to have the lowest number of confirmations since the session that ran from 1951 to 1952. Of Obama’s 54 judicial nominees, 25 are waiting action on the Senate floor and 29 are before the Senate Judiciary Committee.

Congressional Report Details A Starving Judiciary (District Sentinel [DC], 09/16/16)
Sam Sacks: President Obama is staring down mounting judicial vacancies around the country. As a result of Senate obstruction, he will likely be the first executive in nearly two decades to leave office with federal district courts less staffed than when he was sworn in. There are 673 district judgeships around the nation, and 75 of them are currently vacant. That’s an 83 percent increase from when President Obama took office, when there were only 41 vacancies, according to data from the Congressional Research Service (CRS). That’s also a reversal of what happened during the presidencies of George W. Bush and Bill Clinton. From the first year to the eighth year of the Clinton administration, district court vacancies declined 55 percent to 42 from 93. Throughout the George W. Bush presidency, vacancies also fell—a 45 percent decrease to 32 from 58.

Texas has a judge problem - not enough on the federal bench (Houston Chronicle, 09/15/16)
Brett Barrouquere: "Texas has a problem with judges - mainly that there aren't enough of them on the federal bench. The state has 12 federal judicial openings, the most in the nation, and only five active judges hearing cases in the Eastern District of Texas. And, it is delaying justice in those cases. All this because of the political gamesmanship and dysfunction in Washington, D.C....The lack of judges prompted the U.S. Judicial Conference, which monitors caseloads and languishing judicial vacancies, to declare judicial emergencies in all four of Texas' judicial divisions. Across those districts, there are a total of 10 trial benches unfilled, and on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, there are two Texas seats open. U.S. Sen. John Cornyn and U.S. Sen. Ted Cruz, both Texas Republicans, hold seats on the powerful Senate Judiciary Committee, which would seem to make it easier to get a judge through the Senate.... Five nominees are pending. But, they need to get full U.S. Senate approval by November if they have any hope of being seated before Obama leaves the White House"

Senate Judiciary Committee Acts on Judge Lucy Koh's 9th Cir. Nomination (Findlaw, 09/15/16)
U.S. Ninth Circuit blog By Casey C. Sullivan, Esq.: "Koh's "strong hand and sharp tongue," as the San Jose Mercury News describes it, has won her plenty of fans, including here at FindLaw and in the Senate Judiciary Committee."

Tom Cotton continues two-year blockade of judge confirmations (Arkansas Times, 09/14/16)
Max Brantley: "Sen. Tom Cotton continues to mount a one-man blockade to confirmation of judges to the depleted federal court of claims. Thanks as ever to Glenn Sugameli of Judging the Environment, a judicial nominations project, for the update. Tuesday, Cotton again blocked votes on five nominees twice approved unanimously by the Republican-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee to a court with six vacancies. Cotton said he's not convinced the court needs more hands. Despite the two years of deliberation on these nominations and support from his own party, Cotton characterizes the process as a "rubber stamp" of presidential nominations. With the Senate needing unanimous consent to move a vote, Cotton alone blocked it. Democratic Sen. Patrick Leahy said in a statement: '... Senate Republicans' obstruction playbook leaves no court behind. It spans from the very top, with their complete refusal to give a hearing and a vote to Chief Judge Merrick Garland, to the article III circuit and district courts, to the article I Court of Federal Claims, where citizens go to sue their government. This blockade of all five CFC nominees makes no sense, especially because not a single Republican on the Senate Judiciary Committee raised a concern about these nominees either during the committee hearings on these nominations 2 years ago or during the Committee debate 2 years ago or last year.' You could say Tom Cotton does not play well with others."

Bring on the judges [BY WJW EDITORIAL BOARD] (Washington Jewish Week [DC], 09/14/16)
"The Republican-led Senate, which had been dragging its feet in considering Obama’s federal court nominees, announced earlier this year that it will not act on any more appointments until the president’s term ends in January. That effectively put Judge Merrick Garland’s nomination as Supreme Court justice in deep freeze and does the same for every other judicial nominee. That makes no sense. There are 96 vacancies in the federal judiciary and 58 nominations pending. It is the Senate’s job to act on those nominations and not to use its constitutional role for political purposes. Each of the nominees deserves a hearing. The Senate should fulfill its mandate to advise and consent."

Bring on the Judges [Editorial] (Jewish Exponent [PA], 09/14/16)
"The Republican-led Senate, which had been dragging its feet in considering Obama’s federal court nominees, announced earlier this year that it will not act on any more appointments until the president’s term ends in January. That effectively put Judge Merrick Garland’s nomination as Supreme Court justice in deep freeze and does the same for every other judicial nominee. That makes no sense. There are 96 vacancies in the federal judiciary and 58 nominations pending. It is the Senate’s job to act on those nominations and not to use its constitutional role for political purposes. Each of the nominees deserves a hearing. The Senate should fulfill its mandate to advise and consent."

Learn how state's judicial vacancies impact residents (Sun Sentinel [FL], 09/14/16)
Jan Engoren: According to the Sun Sentinel, more than 10 percent of the nation's 677 federal district judgeships are vacant, awaiting approval by the Senate. In Florida five of 37 district judge slots (14 percent) are unfulfilled. Linda Geller-Schwartz, state policy advocate for the National Council of Jewish Women, said, "Of the six judicial vacancies in the federal courts in Florida, four of them are considered judicial emergencies. One of these positions has been vacant for over two years. Yet, some of our senators seem unconcerned that their failure to hold Judiciary Committee hearings is creating an untenable situation." "They need to be reminded that justice delayed is justice denied," she said.

Garland snub just the tip of judicial obstruction iceberg (The Hill, 09/12/16)
Brielle Green: "Across the nation, dozens of judicial seats remain vacant. After Republicans took control of the Senate after the 2014 election, the confirmation process came to a screeching halt. Since then, only 22 nominees have been confirmed, leaving a record 90 judicial vacancies....By refusing to act, senators are creating a judicial crisis by actively refusing to do their job. Many of these vacancies are considered judicial emergencies, causing overloaded dockets and delaying justice for many. ... nominees are supported by their home state senators, both Democrats and Republicans.... our nation’s empty courts will continuously flood with cases that may not be heard until senators do their jobs."

Federal judge retirements surge, next president to remake courts (Examiner, 09/12/16)
Paul Bedard column: "The next president won't just have a chance to pack the U.S. Supreme Court, but also lower circuit and district courts as judges take retirement at a record rate. At a rate of more than one a week, federal circuit and district judges are quitting full-time work and going on "senior status," which creates a bench vacancy .... , the number of judges taking "senior status" in the last year has surged more than at any time over the past three decades. The Brookings Institution said that 56 district and circuit judges have left this year, compared with 38 in former President George W. Bush's last year, and at least eight more have signaled their plans to semi-retire.... the next president will be given a chance to remake the court system by filling 115 lower court vacancies, 14 percent of all district and circuit judgeships, Brookings said. According to court analysts, the judges the next president will appoint will remake the court for the coming 40 years, including the Supreme Court."

Why Texas Has a Serious Judicial Vacancy Problem (Texas Lawyer, 09/12/16)
John Council: With 12 federal judicial vacancies, Texas has more empty benches than anywhere else in the country. It's becoming a serious problem, especially in venues such as the Eastern District of Texas, which is home to the nation's busiest patent docket. Down from eight active judges to just five, the Eastern District's docket has now ballooned to 1,261 weighted cases per court, the highest in the nation. The dearth of federal judges in the Lone Star State has not gone unnoticed by the U.S. Judicial Conference, which monitors caseloads and languishing judicial vacancies. It has declared judicial emergencies in all four of Texas' judicial divisions, where a total of 10 trial benches are unfilled, and on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, where two Texas seats are open.

Eye on Boise: Senators spar over judge confirmations (Spokesman-Review [Spokane, WA], 09/10/16)
Betsy Z. Russell: "Sen. Heidi Heitkamp, D-N.D., asked unanimous consent that the Senate immediately vote on all 20 pending nominees – including Nye – with no further debate. She said that with the Senate’s failure to act on a big backlog of federal court judge nominees, “Justice is being severely delayed in these jurisdictions.... Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., responded with a counterproposal: A “bipartisan package of four.” McConnell said he’d support allowing a vote on one district court nominee from California, two from Pennsylvania, and one from Utah. Sen. Cory Booker, D-N.J., objected, noting that the proposal would pass over the first two nominees on the list – the two who have been waiting the longest, and the only two African-Americans among the first 15 on the list. “That to me is unacceptable,” he said. “The perception alone should be problematic to all of us in this body.” Nye is No. 18 on that list of 20 nominees awaiting full Senate votes. Meanwhile, the Senate Judiciary Committee last week held hearings on five more district court nominees from Texas. Idaho has been down to just one active federal district judge since July 3, 2015, when longtime U.S. District Judge Edward Lodge took senior status."

Mitch McConnell Tried Skipping Over the Two Longest-Waiting Judicial Nominees. They’re Both Black Men. (Medium, 09/09/16)
The Leadership Conference: "Senate Democrats took to the Senate floor on Wednesday to ask for votes on noncontroversial pending judicial nominees. With 90 current vacancies on the federal judiciary — and 32 judicial emergencies — Democrats were asking for something to help alleviate a judicial vacancy crisis manufactured by the Republican leadership’s obstruction. But they were also asking for something that could have been done in just minutes.... Sen. Cory Booker, D. N.J., was there to wonder why McConnell had skipped the next two nominees in line. One of them was Julien Neals of New Jersey who was nominated in February 2015 and who’s been waiting for a vote on the Senate floor for more than 10 months. The other was Edward Stanton III of Tennessee, who was nominated in May 2015 and whose nomination also has been waiting for more than 10 months on the Senate floor. Sens. Lamar Alexander and Bob Corker of Tennessee, both Republicans, wanted Stanton confirmed last year."

Sen. Casey: Stop the Obstruction and Do Your Job (Medium, 09/09/16)
"In May, I walked onto the Senate floor and made a motion to confirm all judicial nominees for federal district court seats pending before the full Senate, including two from Pennsylvania. I felt compelled to take action since the pace of judicial confirmations has slowed to a trickle while the number of judicial vacancies has skyrocketed since Republicans took over the majority in 2014. Despite the fact that the Senate has confirmed just 22 judges so far this Congress, compared to the 68 the Democrat-controlled Senate confirmed in the final two years of the Bush administration, and despite the fact that judicial vacancies have increased more than 100 percent in the last two years, the Majority Leader quickly shot down my motion.... Senate Democrats have gone to the floor to make over 20 confirmation motions for district court nominees, including 5 just this week. ... Pennsylvania currently has four pending district court nominees, all distinguished judges nominated with bipartisan support from my colleague Senator Toomey. Two of these nominees, Susan Baxter and Marilyn Horan, passed out of the Judiciary Committee with unanimous support and are now among the 18 district court nominees, all vetted and deemed fit by the Judiciary Committee, awaiting full-Senate confirmation votes. Pennsylvania’s other two excellent district court nominees, John Younge and Robert Colville, have inexplicably been blocked from even getting a committee vote, despite their obvious qualification for the federal bench. There is simply no legitimate reason to block any of these nominees. Unfortunately, the district court is not the only place Senate Republicans are obstructing nominations. It took more than a year for the Senate to confirm the eminently qualified Judge Luis Felipe Restrepo to his seat on the Third Circuit Court of Appeals. Now, the Senate again has before it an excellent nominee to that court, Rebecca Haywood, who deserves prompt consideration and a vote. She was nominated almost six months ago, yet Republican leadership has not taken a single step toward considering her nomination."

What happens when a Muslim judge turns out to be a Methodist? (McClatchy newspapers, 09/09/16)
Hannah Allam: "Interest this week in the first Muslim nominated to the federal bench has drawn attention to another judge facing a tough confirmation battle and whose background has prompted questions over Muslim identity. No sooner had Muslim advocacy groups sent out news releases praising the nomination Tuesday of Washington lawyer Abid Riaz Qureshi than a question arose among U.S. Muslims on social media: What about Judge Abdul Karim Kallon? Kallon left his birthplace of Sierra Leone when he was 11 and moved to the United States, where he would go on to graduate from two Ivy League universities, win confirmation for a federal judgeship and then become the first black nominee from Alabama for the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.... Given Kallon’s accomplishments, it’s easy to see why Muslims would be eager to claim him as one of their own. The problem is, he’s Methodist. .... [Former Northern District of Alabama Chief Judge] Clemon recalled calling Alabama Sen. Richard Shelby about supporting Kallon in 2009. “He said, ‘Can’t you get him to change his name?’ ” Clemon recalled. Shelby and fellow Republican Sen. Jeff Sessions ended up pushing through Kallon’s confirmation for a district seat. That support appears to have dried up, however, since Obama nominated Kallon for a seat on the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, the Atlanta-based court that considers cases from Alabama, Florida and Georgia. When asked for comment, spokespeople for both senators provided only a joint statement saying they’d withhold approval from any Obama nominee."

The Media Should Not Give Republicans A Pass On Unprecedented Obstruction Of Obama’s Judicial Nominees (Media Matters for America, 09/08/16)
Senate Republicans are engaging in unprecedented obstruction, which includes a historic blockade of Supreme Court nominee Merrick Garland and exceptional obstruction of judicial nominations to district and circuit courts. Media should point out that Republican senators cannot credibly use the fact that is an election year as an excuse not to move forward with confirmations.

It Took 228 Years For An American President To Nominate A Muslim For The Federal Bench (Think Progress, 09/07/16)
Ian Millhiser: "Obama made diversity a high priority in his judicial nominations throughout his presidency.... Qureshi is the first Muslim attorney nominated to the federal bench in a nation where Muslims make up about 1 percent of the total population. Moreover, while Qureshi’s nomination is historic, there is no guarantee that he will be confirmed. ... Judicial confirmations slowed to a crawl the moment Republicans regained the Senate last year."

Recess is over: Time to confirm judges (Brookings, 09/06/16)
Russell Wheeler: "Federal courts are already partially shutdown. Of 852 federal district and circuit judgeships, 87 were vacant on September 6. Thirty-eight of the 49 pending nominees have been waiting longer than has Judge Merrick Garland, who was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Obama on March 16. These vacancies, many of which are longstanding, have serious consequences for litigants and for sitting judges on vacancy-riddled courts in Texas and other states, as explained here and here. As documented below, the current Senate has veered from the precedents created by recent similarly situated Senates. Since the January 2015 shift in Senate party control, district and circuit vacancies have more than doubled while confirmations have grown by less than a tenth. ... At this point in President Bush’s term, 207 district and circuit judges had taken senior status, versus 286 so far in Obama’s term (judges taking senior status create almost all vacancies). More vacancies call for more confirmations"

John Cornyn and Ted Cruz’s Texas: A State of Judicial Emergency (Justice Watch, 09/06/16)
"For years, they’ve systematically delayed and obstructed filling federal judicial vacancies in Texas, including on federal trial courts and the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals .... the epicenter of this growing problem is Cornyn and Cruz’s home state of Texas, which continues to have far more vacancies and judicial emergencies than any other state in the country.... Texas wouldn’t have enough judges even if every bench were filled. According to the Judicial Conference of the United States—headed by Chief Justice John Roberts—Texas needs at least nine new judgeships to meet its growing federal caseload .... As Judges Davis and Martinez explained in their requests for a faster nomination process, judicial vacancies threaten the fair administration of justice, and undermine the Constitution’s promise of equal justice under law. In Texas, the 12 current judicial vacancies have been without a judge for a combined 25 years."